*Your facility may use either a Horizon® or Discovery™ model by Hologic®

  1. National Osteoporosis Foundation. NOF.org. What is osteoporosis and what causes it? https://www.nof.org/patients/what-is-osteoporosis/. Accessed 2/10/2021

  2. Jankowski, L et al. Quantifying Image Quality of DXA Scanners Performing Vertebral Fracture Assessment Using Radiographic Phantoms. 2006. DHM-08251.

  3. Hologic, MAN-03283 Rev 007 for Horizon A.

  4. Shepherd, Ng, Sommer, Heymsfield. Bone (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2017.06.010

  5. National Osteoporosis Foundation. NOF.org. Bone Density Exam/Testing
    https://www.nof.org/patients/diagnosis-information/bone-density-examtesting/. Accessed 2/10/2021

  6. National Osteoporosis Foundation. NOF.org. Just for Men
    https://www.nof.org/preventing-fractures/general-facts/just-for-men/. Accessed 2/10/2021

  7. Hangartner TN. A study of the long-term precision of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers and implications for the validity of the least-significant-change calculation. Osteoporos Int. 2006.

  8. Cosman F, Krege JH, Looker AC, Schousboe JT, Fan B, Sarafrazi Isfahani N, Shepherd JA, Krohn KD, Steiger P, Wilson KE, Genant HK. Spine fracture prevalence in a nationally representative sample of US women and men aged ≥40 years: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jun;28(6):1857-1866. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-3948-9. Epub 2017 Feb 7. PMID: 28175980; PMCID: PMC7422504